Despite growing interest in conservation and reestablishment of ecological connectivity, few studies have explored its context-specific social-ecological outcomes. In this study, we integrated two modeling approaches, mental modeling of stakeholder perceptions and individual-based ecological modeling of a species of concern, Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri), to explore the social and ecological outcomes to changing stream connectivity in the Teton River drainage in Idaho, USA. The aggregation of mental models revealed gaps and linkages among different types of stakeholders, and emphasized the importance of knowledge sharing among stakeholders to strengthen decision-making abilities. Additionally, the results from the individual-based models suggested that the potential for a large, migratory life history form, in addition to self-preference mating, had the strongest effects on outcomes for Yellowstone cutthroat trout. Together, these results provided a rich SES context in order to explore social-ecological outcomes to changing connectivity.